1.) Relationships vs. OutcomesWomen tend to value relationships over outcomes and are willing to compromise in an effort to keep the relationship intact. They can be people pleasers who generally do not like conflict and confrontation, and many women associate salary negotiation with conflict. In a 2002 study by Babcock, Gelfund, Small, and Stayn, "Propensity to Initiate Negotiations," men and women participated in an internet survey to identify if they believed it was appropriate to negotiate in various work-related fictitious situations. As a group, women were less likely than men to choose negotiation as an option, even though they recognized that negotiation was appropriate.
Recommendation: Both men and women can be successful negotiators by positioning their needs as part of a collaborative process. By listening to a potential employer’s needs and recommending outcomes that
benefit both parties, women and men can get what they want for themselves and preserve the relationship at the same time.
2.) Needs vs. Wants
Men are more likely to ask for what they want. Cultural norms may be at play here, since historically it has been acceptable for men to be assertive in the business world, while women who are tend to be viewed as aggressive or difficult to work with. In a 2003 study by Small, Babcock, and Gelfund, "Why Don’t Women Ask," participants were asked to play a game and offered $3 as compensation. If participants asked for more, they would receive $10. Almost nine times as many males asked for more money, suggesting that men ask for what they want more frequently than women.